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The dogwood or wild dogwood is a species of dogwood native to southern Europe and Asia.
The species owes its Latin name (cornu = horn) to the fact that its wood is hard as the horn.
Dogwood is a hardy tree (USDA Zone 5) up to 12 m tall and appreciates calcareous soils. Its longevity is greater than 100 years.
The deciduous leaves 4 to 10 cm long and 2 to 4 cm wide are whole, opposite, slightly embossed, with a dark green back. They fall quite early in autumn.
The yellow flowers are small (5 to 10 mm in diameter) and appear in February-March before the leaves. This early bloom, before that of Forsythia, makes dogwood an excellent melliferous plant.
The fruits, called dogwoods, are red drupes 15 to 20 mm long containing a large nucleus.
Shrub very often planted in gardens. Fruits are rich in vitamin C. They can be eaten raw as long as they are ripe (otherwise they are laxative). They are mostly eaten cooked, jelly and marmalade. Formerly, this tree was very cultivated because its fruits were very appreciated.
The dogwood appreciates the fresh and calcareous soils.
It supports the size well and can be formed in hedge.
The wood is hard, elastic and straight; it was once prized for making arrows and javelins, gears, wheel spokes or tool handles.
Its powerful roots help fight against soil erosion.
The species is useful for wildlife because hares and deer appreciate its foliage, just as bees appreciate its early flowers at the end of winter, and the birds its fruits in summer.
Sources 2016 : ONF, CRPF, DRAAF, WIKIPEDIA